Advanced CT Scanners Reduce Patient Radiation Exposure

Computed tomography scans are an accepted standard of care for diagnosing heart and lung conditions. But clinicians worry that the growing use of CT scans could be placing patients at a higher lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure. A new study of 2,085 patients published in the online issue of the Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, found that the use of advanced CT scanning equipment is helping to address this important concern.

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Improving the Imaging Experience of Patients with PTSD

A quality assessment and improvement project at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle revealed the need for optimization of the imaging experience of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a viable area for improved awareness and future research, according to a feature published in the June issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology.

Many patients with PTSD require diagnostic imaging for workup of medical problems, yet radiologic examinations could invoke anxiety, fear or discomfort in this demographic.

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Brain scans differentiate adults who have recovered from childhood ADHD and those whose difficulties linger

About 11 percent of school-age children in the United States have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) While many of these children eventually “outgrow” the disorder, some carry their difficulties into adulthood: About 10 million American adults are currently diagnosed with ADHD.

In the first study to compare patterns of brain activity in adults who recovered from childhood ADHD and those who did not, MIT neuroscientists have discovered key differences in brain activity. The researchers used a technique called resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study what the brain is doing.

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Quantitative Susceptibility MR Imaging Developed to Monitor Multiple Sclerosis

Researchers from Western University’s Robarts Research Institute have developed a new application called quantitative susceptibility (QS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor specific areas of the brain. The application provides a better way to monitor multiple sclerosis at its earliest stages.

“Our research provides a quantitative tool using a relatively conventional imaging sequence but with novel analysis. This tool shows that there is considerable damage occurring in common areas of all patients in both the white matter and in the deep brain structures—the gray matter. Those quantitative measures—what we call quantitative susceptibility—correlate with disease symptoms,” states Dr. Menon of the research team.

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Imaging May Aid in Predicting MS Progression

A measurement obtained through MR spectroscopy appeared to predict disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, a preliminary study showed. The study, which involved 59 patients and 43 healthy controls in a discovery sample and 220 patients in a confirmatory cohort, yielded the mI:NAA ratio as “a robust cross-sectional predictor of brain volume loss and clinical disability over time,” the researchers wrote in JAMA Neurology.

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Detailed imaging of lung diseases provided by X-ray dark-field radiography

Scientists have for the first time tested X-ray dark-field radiography on a living organism to diagnose lung disease, enabling highly detailed images of the lung to be produced. As reported in the Investigative Radiology journal, this method shows promise in detecting diseases such as pulmonary emphysema at an earlier stage, than it is currently available. Conventional radiographic procedures generate images based on the absorption of X-rays as they pass through the tissue. The newly developed technique of X-ray dark-field radiography uses new technology to monitor wave changes during tissue transmission to create higher resolution images.

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