Lung cancer is often called a “silent killer,” and one-fourth of people with the disease show no symptoms when they are diagnosed. It’s often caught during chest X-rays or scans performed for other reasons. Last year, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended annual CT scans for patients ages 55 to 74 with a smoking history equivalent to one pack a day for 30 years who still smoke or who have quit within 15 years.
Thirty percent of nearly 40,000 women who will die from breast cancer in the next year could have been helped if they had received regular mammograms starting at age 40. A public service campaign called Mammography Saves Lives is encouraging women to find an accredited mammography center near them for regular screenings. According to the American Cancer Society, approximately 300,000 new cases of breast cancer will are diagnosed each year.
Scientists have for the first time tested X-ray dark-field radiography on a living organism to diagnose lung disease, enabling highly detailed images of the lung to be produced. As reported in the Investigative Radiology journal, this method shows promise in detecting diseases such as pulmonary emphysema at an earlier stage, than it is currently available. Conventional radiographic procedures generate images based on the absorption of X-rays as they pass through the tissue. The newly developed technique of X-ray dark-field radiography uses new technology to monitor wave changes during tissue transmission to create higher resolution images.
Researchers at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland find that a noninvasive imaging technique using positron emission tomography (PET) and CT images with (18)F-sodium fluoride and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose may be able to detect coronary atherosclerotic plaques.
If the results of their continued research are confirmed, this technique has the potential to change the way coronary artery disease is treated.
A Terry Fox Research Institute led study has developed software that accurately classifies 9 out of 10 times, which spots or lesions are benign or malignant on CT lung scans.
The findings are expected to have immediate clinical impact worldwide for those at risk for or who are diagnosed with lung cancer. The results are published in the Sept 5th issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Advances in Ultrasonography (US) technology allow confident characterization of not only benign cysts but also benign and malignant solid masses.
According to Regina J. Hooley, MD, Leslie M. Scoutt, MD, and Liane E. Philpotts, Md from the Department of Diagnostic Radiology at Yale University School of Medicine, having knowledge of current and emerging US technology, along with meticulous scanning techniques is imperative for image optimization and diagnosis.
The ability to synthesize breast US findings with multiple imaging modalities and clinical information is also necessary to ensure the best patient care.
The full report is available in the September issue of Radiology.
In a separate study, findings were that BI-RADS 3 breast lesions had a lower cancer rate when using ultrasound, since more biopsies must be performed, most of which turn out to be negative.
“Supplemental ultrasound screening increases cancer detection beyond mammography alone, but may also result in an increased number of additional test,” says lead research Richard G. Barr, MD, PhD, and professor of radiology at the Northeast Ohio Medical University in Youngstown, Ohio.
“BI-RADS 3 lesions are common on screening ultrasound and often lead to unnecessary biopsies and additional imaging, causing substantial cost and anxiety for patients,” said Barr.
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the male population. Fortunately, the prognosis is excellent if detected at an early stage. New imaging techniques can potentially be invaluable tools for improving prostate cancer detection and localization.
A new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI) has been developed for the purpose of aiding radiologists in cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. Preliminary results show CDI shows considerable promise as a diagnostic aid for radiologists in the detection and localization of prostate cancer.
Experimental results suggest that correlated diffusion imaging provide improved delineation between healthy and cancerous tissue and may have potential as a diagnostic tool for cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland.
According to a study published in the August issue of Radiology, a Multiparametic MR imaging before a transrectal ultrasound (US)-guided targeted biopsy (TB) improves detection of prostate cancer over the standard extended systematic biopsy (SB).
TB detected 15 percent more significant cancers than SB, with those cancers going undetected had the patient not undergone prebiopsy MR imaging and TB, says Philippe Puech, MD, PhD and colleagues of the University of Lille in France.
Results showed the positivity rate for prostate cancer was 59 percent for SB and 69 percent for TB.
An annual low-dose CT lung cancer screen got the approval from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force for adults ages 55 through 79 that have a 30-year history of smoking or who have quit in the past 15 years. Other screening modalities were not recommended. Claudia Henschke, PhD, MD, and radiologist at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City says, “This is a huge step. This is going to save lots of lives.”
Future cancers caused by CT scans done on pediatric patients could be prevented by cutting the radiation dose according to Diana Miglioretti, PhD and colleagues of the University of California Davis.
Roughly four million pediatric CT scans that are performed each year are projected to induce development of cancers during the patient’s lifetime. Reducing the highest 25% of radiation doses to the median observed doses would be expected to prevent 43% of those cancers
The estimated lifetime risks of cancer related to radiation from CT scans were greater among those ages 5 to 14, girls, and those undergoing scans of the abdomen/pelvis.